THEY ARE OUR HEART, THE MOTOR THAT ALL MAKES IT POSSIBLE

(THESE ARE ONLY SOME, WE ARE LUCKY, THEY ARE MANY)

ABOUT THE TZOTZIL

THE TZOTZIL PEOPLE INHABIT THE CENTER AND NORTH OF THE STATE OF CHIAPAS, IN THE SOUTHEAST OF MEXICO. THE TZOTZIL ETHNIA IS NOT HOMOGENEOUS GIVEN ITS GEOGRAPHICAL EXTENSION: THE TZOTZIL REGION OF THE CHIAPAS HIGHS, WITH COLD CLIMATE AND MOUNTAIN GEOGRAPHY; AND THE TZOTZIL REGION OF THE LOW ZONE, WITH TROPICAL CLIMATE AND GEOGRAPHY LESS ACCIDENTED. THERE IS A STRONG CORRELATION BETWEEN SPEAKING TZOTZIL AND BELONGING TO THIS ETHNIC.

THEY ARE APPROXIMATELY 350 THOUSAND AND DISTRIBUTED IN SEVERAL MUNICIPALITIES OF THE STATE OF CHIAPAS: ZINACANTÁN, SAN JUAN CHAMULA, SAN ANDRÉS LARRÁINZAR, CHENALHÓ, PANTELHÓ, HUITIUPÁN, CHALCHIHUITÁN, EL BOSQUE, SIMOJOVEL, IZTAPA, BOCHIL, SOYALHÓ, HUIXTÁN , SAN LUCAS, ACALA, SAN CRISTÓBAL DE LAS CASAS, VENUSTIANO CARRANZA (SAN BARTOLOMÉ DE LOS LLANOS) AND AMATÁN. IN ADDITION, THERE IS PERMANENT PRESENCE OF SPEAKERS WHO HAVE EMIGRATED TO DIFFERENT POINTS OF THE REPUBLIC.

THE CEREMONIAL COMMUNITY LIFE IS ORGANIZED AROUND SAINTS. THE FESTIVALS, ORGANIZED BY CHOSEN BUTLORS, CONFORM THE ANNUAL RITUAL CYCLE OF THE COMMUNITY.

THEIR TRADITIONAL CLOTHING

WOMEN USE SHORT BLOUSES (HUIPILES), LONG BLUE OR RED SKIRT THAT COMES UP TO THE WAIST AND A MOCHEVAL, OR A REBOZO TO CARRY THEIR CHILDREN. MEN WEAR SHORT PANTS, AND A WOVEN FABRIC CLOTH THAT COMES TO KNEES, RED COTTON RIBBON, LEATHER HARBORS AND A HAT THAT THEY GENERALLY DECORATE WITH COLOURED RIBBONS.

ABOUT NAHUAS

NÁHUATL IS SPOKEN IN NUMEROUS PLACES: SOUTH OF THE FEDERAL DISTRICT, IN PARTICULAR IN THE HIGH MILPA DELEGATION; ALSO IN DIFFERENT REGIONS OF THE STATE OF PUEBLA; SOME COMMUNITIES OF MORELOS, TLAXCALA, HIDALGO AND THE STATE OF MEXICO AS WELL AS BEYOND VERACRUZ, SAN LUIS POTOSÍ, JALISCO, GUERRERO, OAXACA AND TABASCO. ACCORDING TO THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF POPULATION THERE ARE NEARLY TWO MILLION PEOPLE WHO KEEP NÁHUATL ALIVE.

THEIR COSMOVISION

TO THE CENTER OF THE UNIVERSE IS TLĀL-TÍCPAC (= 'ON THE FIRM SOIL'), A PORTION OF THE EARTH EXTENDED HORIZONTAL AND VERTICALLY THAT CONSTITUTES GREAT PART OF THE VISIBLE MATERIAL WORLD WHICH IS SURROUNDED BY WATER TĒŌ-ĀTL (= 'DIVINE WATER') THAT IS PROLONGED UNTIL IT MEETS WITH THE HEAVENS, THIS LAST ONE IS ILHUIC-ĀTL (= 'CELESTE WATER').

ABOUT TEQUIUM

IT IS THE COMMUNITY WORK. EVERYONE MUST WORK AND HAVE WORKSHOPS WITHOUT GETTING PAID TO HELP THE COMMUNITY. THIS WORD COMES FROM THE NÁHUATL TEQUIYOTL, THAT ETIMOLOGICALLY DERIVES FROM TEQUITL 'WORK, TRIBUTE' AND THE SUFFIX -YOTL FORMING ABSTRACT NAMES (SIMILAR TO '-IDAD' IN SPANISH). THE TEQUIUM IS DIVIDED AND ADMINISTERED BY THE PEOPLE OF GREATER RESPECT WITHIN THE COMMUNITY AND THEY ARE THE ONES WHO ALSO GIVE SANCTIONS TO THOSE WHO DISOBEY.

ABOUT MAYAS

THE SOCIETY OF MAYAN CULTURE ENCOUNTS DISTINCTIVE ELEMENTS AS: A JEROGLIQUE SCRIPTURE CONTAINED BY MORE THAN 700 SIGNS; THE USE OF THE FALSE VASE IN ARCHITECTURE; THE DEVELOPMENT OF A MONUMENTAL SCULPTURE OF RELIGIOUS CHARACTER ASSOCIATED WITH THE ESTELA AND ALTAR; AND, A SYSTEM TO MEASURE THE TIME THAT STARTS OFF A CONCRETE DATE. IT EXPANDS THROUGH THE CURRENT MEXICAN STATES OF YUCATÁN, CAMPECHE AND QUINTANA ROO, PART OF THE TABASCO AND CHIAPAS, THE GUATEMALAN DEPARTMENTS OF PETEN AND IZABAL, THE NORTHWEST OF HONDURAS, AND BELIZE. IN TOTAL SOME 280,000 KM SQUARE. THE MAYAB OR COUNTRY OF THE MAYAS IS DIVIDED IN THREE ECOLOGICAL ZONES: THE YUCATAN PENINSULA, THE CENTRAL ZONE OF PETEN AND THE HIGHLANDS OF CHIAPAS AND GUATEMALA.

THEIR CALENDARY

THEY HAD TWO CALENDARS: THE TZOLKIN OR RITUAL AND THE HAAB OR SOLAR. THE FIRST CONSIDERED 260 DAYS DIVIDED IN 13 MONTHS OF 20 DAYS, AND IT WAS USED TO PREDICT THE FUTURE OF PEOPLE. THE SECOND HAD 18 MONTHS OR TUNES OF 20 DAYS, WHICH GAVE A PERIOD OF 360 DAYS, PLUS FIVE “ACIAGO” DAYS. COMBINING BOTH CALENDARS THEY OBTAINED A CYCLE OF 52 YEARS CALLED BY THE MAYAS SHORT ACCOUNT. IN ADDITION TO THIS SYSTEM, IDENTICAL TO THE ONE EMPLOYED BY THE AZTECS, THE MAYAS DEVELOPED ANOTHER ONE OF GREATER COMPLEXITY, DENOMINATED INITIAL SERIES OR LONG ACCOUNT, THAT ALLOWED TO COUNT TIME TRANSCURRED SINCE THE CREATION OF THE WORLD THAT, ACCORDING TO THEM, WAS LOCATED IN THE YEAR 320 BC FOR THAT, THEY ACCOUNTED DAYS THROUGH TEMPORARY UNITS AND ACCORDING TO THEIR NUMBERING SYSTEM.

THEIR NUMEROLOGY

THEIR NUMERATION A DIRECT CONSEQUENCE OF THE NEED TO ACCOUNT THE ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS THAT REGULATED THE AGRICULTURAL CYCLE, WAS VIGESIMAL AND INCLUDED THE CONCEPT OF ZERO. DESIGNED MANY CENTURIES BEFORE IT APPEARED IN THE ARAGON NUMBERING. TO REPRESENT THE NUMBERS THEY USED A COMBINATION OF POINTS (EQUAL TO 1) AND BARS (- SAME TO 5). THE DIVISION OF FRACTIONS AND LOGARITMS DOMINATED IN MATHEMATICS.